Creating A Blog in Org Mode

Table of Contents

1 Overview

NOTE: My website used to be build with ox-twbs, now it's built on ox-html. Commit bb5eadb6 is one of the last to use ox-twbs.

Org is a very powerful tool, but most of the org setups I've seen hasn't used it to its full potential. This website is one example of a complex, multi-page project built in org. This post is a 'brief' overview of how it was created.

This blog was created with:

Features:

  • Homepage
  • Blogging Engine
    • Prev/Next Links
    • Archive Page (sorted)
    • Automatically add new org files to blog/archive

This post will go over everything you need to set up a complex, customized, and dynamic org project like this one. It assumes you are familiar with org, and that you know elisp.

2 Org Projects

2.1 Basic Setup

Org projects are a simple way to combine and link multiple org files together into one complete export. The complete docs are here.

To create an org project, all you need to do is set org-publish-project-alist. Here's a simple example.

;; Setup
(setq org-publish-project-alist
      `(("project-name"
         :base-directory "~/org-project"
         :recursive t
         :publishing-directory "/var/www/html"
         :publishing-function org-html-publish-to-html)))

;; Publish with
(org-publish-current-project) ;; While having a file in your project open
;; OR
;; M-x org-publish <RET> project-name <RET>

Once this is run, you'll have a new org project with those following parameters, and you can publish the project using org-publish-project. Just place your org files in ~/org-project, and org will export them to HTML (using org-html-publish-to-html) and place them in /var/www/html.

Running the export again will cache the output files, if they have not changed, which can be useful. If you want to trigger a full rebuild, you can run (org-publish "project-name" t).

Files that are linked with org-insert-link will link fine in the export, as long as they are realtive links. This should happen automatically, but occasionally, you have to tweak a few links.

2.2 Customization

While the above setup works, there's a lot we might want to change. For instance, we might want to turn of table of contents for the entire project. For a single file, we would put #+OPTIONS: toc:nil, but to apply this to every file in our project, we can add :with-toc nil to the project above. Here are the rest of the default org project options.

2.3 Making this Shareable

Some people might want to put this setq call in your Emacs dotfiles, but I prefer to place it in a seperate emacs lisp file file instead, which lets others get the same project definition. It also lets you put other changes you make in this file as well, since all those changes will be elisp. Anyone who wants to work with your project simply needs to source this file, instead of setting up the project again.

In order to make sure others can use this flawlessly, we need to remove these absolute links from our project, such as /var/www/html and ~/org-project, since we can't expect everyone to have the same directory structure as we do. Since we are loading the static file jgkamat-website.el, we can define the root/export in terms of this file. This is one way to do that, assuming that jgkamat-website.el is in the root:

(let ((proj-base (file-name-directory load-file-name)))
  (setq org-publish-project-alist
        `(("project-name"
           :base-directory ,(concat proj-base ".")
           :recursive t
           :publishing-directory ,(concat proj-base  "../export")
           :publishing-function org-html-publish-to-html))))

The org project definition for this blog (in jgkamat-website.el is not much more complicated than this one. The main difference is it has a bunch of org project customizations turned on, and it's using ox-twbs instead of the native html exporter. This is done by changing the :publishing-function to org-twbs-publish-to-html, which is in the ox-twbs docs.

3 Custom CSS on HTML Exports

We've got a nice website now, but it looks pretty bare bones. How do we provide our own CSS?

The easiest way to apply a CSS file to your org project (with exporters based on the html one) is to add this to your org-publish-project-alist directive:

:html-head-extra "<link rel=\"stylesheet\" href=\"./myfile.css\">"

Another option is to set #+HTML_HEAD_EXTRA at the top of your org files.

I'm very new to 'webdev', so actually creating the CSS was a struggle for me. This is the final result.

4 Dynamic Org Exports

We've got our nice org project for easy export, custom CSS styling, and maybe even a custom org exporter to get our website looking just how we want it, but how can we get dynamic exports? In my case, I wanted an aggregation of all my (sorted) blog posts and previous/next links on all my blog entries

The solution I found to this really showed me the power and flexibility of org mode. Placing this block in org source:

#+BEGIN_SRC emacs-lisp :exports results :results raw
(print "hello world! *bold* /slant/ +strikethrough+")
#+END_SRC

Results in this output:

hello world! bold slant strikethrough

By using the :exports results :results raw directive to source code blocks, we can evaluate them when building our org file, and their result will be inserted into the org document as if we wrote it ourselves!

To generate the dynamic content I want, I just created elisp functions for whatever I needed. After creating a (gen-links) to generate a sorted list of org blog posts, and a (gen-prev-next) to generate previous and next links, all I needed to do was:

# For sorted list of posts
#+BEGIN_SRC emacs-lisp :exports results :results raw
(gen-links)
#+END_SRC

# For prev/next links
#+BEGIN_SRC emacs-lisp :exports results :results raw
(gen-prev-next)
#+END_SRC

I put the source for these functions in my jgkamat-website.el. These functions work by parsing all my org files in /blog and sorting them by the #+DATE, and displaying the relevant information. They need some more work, but they are usable for now. I might post about how I made those functions later…

5 Side Note: Divs

It might be nice to generate divs in your html file from your org source. I used this to get my prev/next links into a nice 3 part table. You can insert a div with class classname like this:

#+begin_classname
Content inside your div
#+end_classname

I created divs called div-wrap, div-left, div-right, and div-center for this purpose, and referenced them in CSS to get them to fit properly. The actual divs are generated in the elisp source code blocks.

6 Wrapping Up

Creating an org blog is a lot easier than it seems, if you know how to use org's features to your advantage.

Let me know via a issue (or a PR) if you find anything wrong on this post/website/anything, and I'll get on it!

Here are some other successful org blogs:

The source code for all of this is at this repo

Lastly, here's an obligatory screenshot of me editing this post. =)

42872170115_8251f5ab65_o.png

7 Navigation

Author: Jay Kamat

Published: 2016-12-06

Emacs 25.3.1 (Org mode 9.1.14)